Technical and methodological guide for updating corine land cover database

In addition, such a map requires precise radiometric calibration and inter-calibration of different sensors and computation of radiative transfer coefficients to derive broadband SDRs from different input narrowband SDRs and, given sufficient angular sampling from all the directional looks within a given temporal window, derive a suitable Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Function (BRDF ).

GLOBALALBEDO project has been set up by ESA to create a 15 year time series by employing SPOT-VEGETATION as well as MERIS.

FAPAR is defined as the fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) absorbed by a vegetation canopy.

PAR is the solar radiation reaching the canopy in the 0.4–0.7 µm wavelength region.

These legal mechanisms are the basis for different activities in monitoring the environment and include the Amsterdam Treaty (1997), EU Habitats Directive, EU Common Agricultural Policy and the Kyoto Protocol.

For accurately monitoring large areas, and Europe in particular, remote sensing appears to be an appropriate tool.

This map is based on Envisat MERIS fine resolution (300 m) mode data.

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To build this map, a colour representing one of 22 different land classifications is associated with each pixel.

Using coarse spatial resolution data, such as that provided by the NOAA-AVHRR sensor, is an alternative.

However, this imagery restricts use for monitoring purposes because the majority of European land cover changes occur at fine scale.

Mapping and monitoring of Land Use and Cover (LUC) is defined as a priority research item in Europe (particularly in regards to Copernicus).

Agricultural and environmental applications require reliable and actual information on LUC.

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